Northwest Energy Association



NWEA Speaker Program for 2018-2019


Thursday, March 28, 2019 -

‘Back to the Future’ of Energy:

Ken Hanson (Founder) & Steve Pappajohn (VP Exploration), C-fficiency Systems, Inc. (CSI)  

‘Back to the Future’ of Energy: By integrating 21stcentury energy production and storage technologies, conventional energy resources, and ‘home-grown’ energy solutions from the past, PNW farmers are improving agricultural economics and global food security.

 PNW farmers are leading the way to practical advances in global food security through better crop yields, greater farm viability, profitability and sustainability, and a dramatic reduction in carbon emissions from agriculture by integrating proven energy engineering techniques with emerging technologies. According to many published estimates the global population is expected to reach 10 billion by 2050 (a ~33% increase). A solution to the challenge this growth represents is being developed in the PNW. The result is agriculture that is more sustainable, economically viable, and more closely aligned with changing environmental conditions and regulations.

 In the last 100 years (i.e., The Petroleum Age) the agriculture industry has dramatically increased food production worldwide. However, this “quantum leap” in food production has come with an enormous energy cost. For the most part, conventional natural resources – primarily oil and gas – have supplied agriculture with the bounty of fuel, power, products and technologies responsible for the stunning advances that customers have enjoyed in food availability, cost, and variety. Increasingly, however, farmers have become subject to a daunting matrix of unfavorable market pressures, economic realities, regulatory requirements, as well as political and other factors that render farming operations uneconomic in many cases. Still other factors, including soil degradation, water issues, limits on carbon emissions and other environmental considerations, further threaten the future viability of farming and the families, communities, and societies it supports.   

Recently, a combination of promising emerging energy technologies are being networked with sophisticated control systems to generate and store renewable energy at low cost. Two of the largest power (and cost) demands on an irrigated farm are fuel to operate: 1. farm machinery  and 2. pumping power required for irrigation. Emerging energy solutions can augment or replace the diesel and other fuels required to irrigate fields, operate farm machinery, and will also provide fertilizer from readily available renewable sources at reduced cost. This solution overcomes intermittency and storage issues associated with renewable power production. And, itdoes notsupplant crop production for fuel production. The solution uses only land unsuitable for agriculture and, in the process, opens new lands for food production. As a result, optimum energy utilization, combining established processes and new technologies for decentralized energy and fertilizer production, as well as for the facilities to store renewable energy from low/no cost resources, could become almost universally available. The results:

·      Highly efficient decentralized energy production, utilization, and storage systems

·      Cost reductions in energy generation by applying energy where and when it is needed most        

·      Energy costs that become a less significant factor in the economics of farm operations

·      Reduction of the carbon footprint associated with energy production in agriculture 

·      Enhancement of conventional energy generation through bioremediation of CO2 gases, land and energy conservation, and other technological advantages that promote farm viability.  

 Ken Hanson is founder and chairman of C-fficiency Systems, Inc., (CSI) and has over 35 years of experience in agriculture, farming and product innovation. Ken brings a deep understanding of the needs of farmers and a problem-solving mind to the challenges of agriculture – especially in regard to energy utilization and optimization. He and his family currently operate farms in eastern Washington State. 

From a generational farm family background, Ken has worked in agriculture since 1979 (Alberta) and, starting in 1982, moved to the US and started an irrigated farm in central Washington. He has founded and operated over 10 successful companies in Ag and Ag-service industry, as well as in the oil and gas service industry (frack water heating, storage, etc.). One of the world’s leading experts in the design, engineering, installation, and optimization of irrigation and water management systems, Ken has developed acreage from sagebrush to production for row crops, forage, orchards and vineyards. 

 As a result of a lifelong passion to improve agriculture Ken has consulted on farm operations, irrigation projects and water transfer projects for agriculture, municipalities, and oilfield operations in Canada, US, Mexico, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Botswana, and Cameroon. He has been responsible for many of the “firsts” in agriculture that have improved energy efficiency and resource conservation. Over his career Ken has served on many boards and committees sharing his knowledge on a wide variety of agricultural issues - all while operating active farm operations and various businesses.                   Ken holds a number of US patents, has 3 more patent applications currently registered, and several more in preparation. He founded a group in Alberta to protect surface ownership rights for farmers, has served as the land owner representative for the Palouse Wind (now E.On) Project, is active in the Farm Bureau (a lobbying group), and is a member of the National Irrigation Association. Ken and his wife Karen operate their farm near Oakesdale, Washington. 

Thursday, April 25, 2019




David M. Hite


Alaska’s first commercial oil and gas province, the Cook Inlet Basin, of South-Central Alaska, was identified by the presence of numerous oil and gas seeps in the southern part of the basin and the Alaska Peninsula. The oil and gas seeps were first recognized by Russian explorers, in the 1850s.  Early exploration was centered in the vicinity of these seeps, which emanate from rocks of Jurassic and Cretaceous ages. The first exploration drilling began in 1902 and ultimately 18 wells were drilled in the southern portions of Cook Inlet and the Alaska Peninsula prior to 1950.  After 1950 exploration shifted northward, and the fourth well drilled in the northern portion of the basin was the discovery well for the Swanson River field in 1957.  This generated an exploration boom, and by 1970, seven of the inlet’s eleven oil fields and 17 of the 35+ gas fields had been discovered.  These early discoveries represent more than 98% of both the oil and gas produced to date.

 After the Prudhoe Bay discovery, in 1968, exploration activity in the Cook Inlet area declined sharply, and over the next 30 years, only four small oil fields and nine small gas were discovered.  As of year-end 2011 (the year Memoir 104 was submitted for publication), the cumulative production from these latter discoveries was less than 20 MMBO and 65 BCFG.

 A declining reserve base and concerns regarding the ability to meet local gas demand led to an increase in gas-directed exploration in the late 1990s and early 2000s.  From 2000 to year-end 2011, eight additional gas fields were discovered, with the most important discoveries occurring in 2011. Cumulative production from the five pre-2011 discoveries totaled approximately 25 BCFG at the time the original report was completed in 2011.  The three fields discovered in 2011 were not yet developed at the time of the report; however, the cumulative, preliminary reserve estimates for these three discoveries are thought to be approximately 1.0 TCFG.

The total cumulative production in the Cook Inlet Basin, from 1958 through 2011 is 1.3 BBO from eight oil fields and 7.5 TCFG from28 gas fields.  Since AAPG Memoir 104 was completed cumulative production has risen to more than 1.365 BBO and 8.505 TCFG.

Given the relatively short, punctuated exploration history of this hydrocarbon basin, renewed exploration activity, using up-to-date technology, will very likely yield significantly positive results.  Recent evaluations by both the USDOE and the USGS place the mean for conventional undiscovered technically recoverable resources in the range of 13 to 17 TCFG and 600 MMBO.


Hite, D. M., and Stone D. M., 2013, A History of Oil and Gas Exploration, Discovery, and Future Potential: Cook Inlet Basin, South-Central Alaska, in D. M. Stone, and D. M. Hite, ed., Oil and Gas Fields of the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska: AAPG Memoir 104,     p. 1-35.

Stanley, R. G., R. R. Charpentier, T. A. Cook, D. W. Houseknecht, T. R. Klett, K. A. Lewis, P. G. Lillis, P. H. Nelson, J. D. Phillips, R. M. Pollastro, C. J. Potter, W. A. Rouse, R. W. Saltus, C. J. Schenk, A. K. Shah, and S. C. Valin, 2011, Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Cook Inlet Region, South-central Alaska, 2011: U.S. Department of the Interior, USGS, Fact Sheet 2011-3068, 2 p.

Thomas, C. P., T. C. Doughty, D. D. Faulder, and D. M. Hite, 2004, South-Central Alaska Natural Gas Study: U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Arctic Energy Office, Contract DE-AM26-99FT40575, 207 p.



David M. Hite has more than 50 years of experience in oil and oil and gas research, exploration and development, resource evaluation, and management.  He earned a B.S. in geology from Oregon State University in 1962 and M. S. and Ph.D. degrees in geology from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1964 and 1968 respectively.  David commenced his professional career in 1967 with Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) in their applied research group.  He subsequently worked as exploration geologist (Alaska), senior staff geologist (responsible for all domestic geologic recruiting and training), district and regional exploration manager (Alaska and Southeastern United States), senior exploration advisor, and manager of geotechnical services for ARCO Alaska Inc.  He worked for ARCO for a total of 24 years, the majority of this time being focused on Alaska.

Since 1992 he has been an independent consulting petroleum geologist focused on Alaska and primarily located in Anchorage, Alaska. In this capacity, he has consulted for major and mid-sized companies such as Exxon, BP, Phillips (now ConocoPhillips), ARCO Alaska Inc. and Anadarko Petroleum, as well as numerous independents, native corporations, and utilities.  He has also consulted for a number of state and federal agencies, and served as an expert witness in major court cases involving with hundreds of millions to billions of dollars at stake.  

 He has also served as a member on the National Academy Sciences Polar Research Board and as a member on the National Research Council Committee report on Cumulative Environmental Effects of Oil and Gas Activities on Alaska’s North Slope.  In 2013, he was co-editor of AAPG Memoir 104—Oil and Gas Fields of the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska

Thursday, May 23, 2019 TBD